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Major Central Banks

  • Federal Reserve Board (FED, FRB) - The Federal Reserve, the central bank of the United States, was founded by Congress in 1913 to provide the nation with a safer, more flexible, and more stable monetary and financial system. Today the Federal Reserve's duties fall into four general areas: (1) conducting the nation's monetary policy; (2) supervising and regulating banking institutions and protecting the credit rights of consumers; (3) maintaining the stability of the financial system; and (4) providing certain financial services to the U.S. government, the public, financial institutions, and foreign official institutions. The Twelve Regional Reserve Banks which, together with the Board of Governors in Washington, D.C., make up the Federal Reserve System.
  • European Central Bank (ECB) - The European Central Bank frames and implements European monetary policy; it conducts foreign exchange operations and ensures the smooth operation of payment systems. The European Central Bank (ECB) and the national central banks of the European Union member states make up the Eurosystem, whose primary task is to maintain price stability. The majority of the bank's revenue is derived from investment earnings on its holdings of foreign-reserve assets and on capital subscribed to and paid in by the national central banks in amounts determined by the countries' share of population and gross domestic product in the EU. The ECB is made up of three parts -- governing council, executive board, and general council.
  • Bank Of Japan - The Bank of Japan's missions are to maintain price stability and to ensure the stability of the financial system, thereby laying the foundations for sound economic development. To fulfill these two missions, the Bank conducts the following activities: 1. Issuance and Management of Banknotes; 2. The Conduct of Monetary Policy; 3. Providing Settlement Services and Ensuring the Stability of the Financial System; 4. Treasury and Government Securities-Related Operations; 5. International Activities; 6. Compilation of Data, Economic Analyses and Research Activities.
  • Bank Of England - The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom. Sometimes known as the 'Old Lady' of Threadneedle Street, the Bank was founded in 1694, nationalised in 1946, and gained operational independence in 1997. Standing at the centre of the UK's financial system, the Bank is committed to promoting and maintaining a stable and efficient monetary and financial framework as its contribution to a healthy economy.
  • Swiss National Bank (SNB)   - The Swiss National Bank conducts the country's monetary policy as an independent central bank. In conjunction with fiscal and competition policy, this serves to create an appropriate environment for economic growth. The National Bank is obliged by Constitution and statute to act in accordance with the interests of the country as a whole. It considers price stability to be a primary goal. Main responsibilities include: Price stability; Promoting the efficiency of the payment system; Ensuring the supply of money; Cashless payment transactions; Investment of currency reserves; Stability of the financial system; Statistical task;and Tasks on behalf of the Confederation.
  • Bank of Canada (BOC) - The Bank of Canada is Canada's central bank .The Bank of Canada's responsibilities focus on the goals of low and stable inflation, a safe and secure, financial stability, and the efficient management of government funds and public debt. The Bank of Canada promotes the economic and financial welfare of Canada, by conducting monetary policy in a way that fosters confidence in the value of money; supplying quality bank notes that are readily accepted and secure against counterfeiting; promoting the safety and efficiency of Canada's financial system; providing efficient and effective funds-management services; communicating its objectives openly and effectively and standing accountable for its actions.
  • Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) - The Reserve Bank of Australia's (RBA) main function is monetary policy. Policy decisions are made by the Board, with the objective of achieving low and stable inflation over the medium term. Other major roles are maintaining financial system stability and promoting the safety and efficiency of the payments system. The Bank is an active participant in financial markets, manages Australia's foreign reserves, issues Australian currency notes and serves as banker to the Commonwealth Government. The information provided by the Reserve Bank includes statistics - for example, on interest rates, exchange rates and money and credit growth - and a range of publications on its operations and research.
  • Reserve Bank of New Zealand - The Reserve Bank of New Zealand is New Zealand's central bank and has three main functions. These are: operating monetary policy to maintain price stability; promoting the maintenance of a sound and efficient financial system; and meeting the currency needs of the public.





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